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Valerie Mmanthe Mampshika,[Bachelor of Arts in Psychology and English]

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) refers to a neurodevelopment disorder which is classified by challenges which individuals face in relation to communicating and interacting with others,in addition to restricted  patterns in behaviors, interests, and activities which reinforce.

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The symptoms are present from a young age,also the symptoms have an impact on the daily functioning activities in relation to cognitive processes.The word ‘spectrum’ is utilised because of the heterogeneity in the presentation and severity of the symptoms, as well as in the skills and level of functioning of individuals who have the disorder.

The diagnosis of the disorder is made on the basis of diagnostic evaluations which often involves collaborative ideas from physicians and psychologists, and may include other disciplines such as speech and language pathology administered by speech therapists or occupational therapy facilitated by occupational therapists who focus on the dynamics of various families. 

The evaluation should include standardised observations of the individual, assessments of learning (by checking if certain content is grasped for instance) and cognitive abilities (by checking if there is proper reasoning when asked to answer certain questions),and interviews to gather information about behavior across plenty settings and the medical and developmental history of an individual who might have the disorder. 

Multiple individuals think individuals who are suffering from ASD behave as if they have a mental illness which is not the case in numerous encounters. According to numerous data reports it has been proposed that there are numerous

 behavioral treatments for ASD that have been shown to transition cognitive level (e.g. IQ), specific skills (e.g. vocabulary, social skills, and joint attention) and behavioral and challenges and mood, although comparative data contrasting various treatments are unavailable,and medications have been demonstrated to lessen behavioral obstacles and and mood. 

There is a lot of interest in terms of identifying treatments which transition the core aspects of ASD. The most deep-rooted treatments utilised applied behavior analytic techniques, which have typically become more natural, developmental in sequence and more flexible. Lately, parent-mediated treatments, group models and the collaboration of medical and behavioral treatments are being developed and tested. Involvement of the family in treatment has frequently improved outcomes.

Individuals in society should not treat those who are suffering from disorders differently in general,because they are also human beings who would like to be treated like normal individuals,although they face challenges in terms of having conversations with others. 



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